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When the offense succeeds in gaining at least 10 yards, it gets a first down , meaning the team has another set of four downs to gain yet another 10 yards or to score. If the offense fails to gain a first down 10 yards after 4 downs, the other team gets possession of the ball at the point where the fourth down ended, beginning with their first down to advance the ball in the opposite direction. Except at the beginning of halves and after scores, the ball is always put into play by a snap.
Offensive players line up facing defensive players at the line of scrimmage the position on the field where the play begins. One offensive player, the center , then passes or "snaps" the ball backwards between his legs to a teammate behind him, usually the quarterback. Before each down, each team chooses a play , or coordinated movements and actions, that the players should follow on a down. Sometimes, downs themselves are referred to as "plays. Each half begins with a kickoff. Teams also kick off after scoring touchdowns and field goals. The other team's kick returner tries to catch the ball and advance it as far as possible.
Where he is stopped is the point where the offense will begin its drive , or series of offensive plays. If the kick returner catches the ball in his own end zone, he can either run with the ball, or elect for a touchback by kneeling in the end zone, in which case the receiving team then starts its offensive drive from its own yard line yard line in NFL, since A touchback also occurs when the kick goes out-of-bounds in the end zone, or since , the ball hits the ground on the goal line and in the end zone. Punts and turnovers in the end zone can also end in a touchback.
After safeties, the team that gave up the points must free kick the ball to the other team from its own yard line. Fouls a type of rule violation are punished with penalties against the offending team. Most penalties result in moving the football towards the offending team's end zone.
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If the penalty would move the ball more than half the distance towards the offender's end zone, the penalty becomes half the distance to the goal instead of its normal value. Most penalties result in replaying the down. Some defensive penalties give the offense an automatic first down.
If a foul occurs during a down, an official throws a yellow penalty flag near the spot of the foul. When the down ends, the team that did not commit the foul has the option of accepting the penalty, or declining the penalty and accepting the result of the down. Variations on these basic rules exist, particularly touch and flag football , which are designed as non-contact or limited-contact alternatives to the relative violence of regular American football.
In touch and flag football, tackling is not permitted. Offensive players are "tackled" when a defender tags them or removes a flag from their body, respectively. Both of these varieties are played mainly in informal settings such as intramural or youth games. Another variation is "wrap", where a player is "tackled" when another player wraps his arms around the ball carrier.
Professional, intercollegiate, and varsity-level high school football invariably use the standard tackling rules. Another variation is with the number of players on the field. In sparsely populated areas, it is not uncommon to find high school football teams playing nine-man football , eight-man football or six-man football. Players often play on offense as well as defense.
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The Arena Football League is a league that plays eight-man football, but also plays indoors and on a much smaller playing surface with rule changes to encourage a much more offensive game. Another variation often played by American children is called Catch and Run. In this game, the children split into two teams and line up at opposite sides of the playing field.
One side throws the ball to the other side. This repeats until the game or recess period is deemed over. The goalposts may be H-shaped both posts fixed in the ground although in the higher-calibre competitions the tuning-fork design supported by a single curved post behind the goal line, so that each post starts 10 feet 3.
The sides of the field are marked by white sidelines, the goal line is marked in white, and white lines are drawn laterally across the field every 5 yards 4. Teams advance across the field through the execution of quick, distinct plays, which involve the possession of a brown, prolate spheroid ball with ends tapered to a point. The ball has two one-inch-wide white stripes.
The player who recovers the ball may run while holding the ball, or throw the ball to a teammate, so long as the throw is not forward. Play stops when the ball carrier's knee, elbow, or any other body part aside from the feet and hands, is forced to the ground a tackle ; when a touchdown see below or a field goal is scored; when the ball leaves the playing area by any means being carried, thrown, or fumbled out of bounds ; or when the ball carrier is in a standing position but can no longer move.
If no score has been made, the next play starts from scrimmage. This line is a sort of "no-man's land"; players must stay on their respective sides of this line until the play has begun again.
For a scrimmage to be valid the team in possession of the football must have seven players, excluding the quarterback, within one yard of the line of scrimmage. The defending team must stay a yard or more back from the line of scrimmage. On the field at the beginning of a play are two teams of 12 unlike 11 in American football. The team in possession of the ball is the offence and the team defending is referred to as the defence. Play begins with a backwards pass through the legs the snap by a member of the offensive team, to the quarterback or punter.
If the quarterback or punter receives the ball, he may then do any of the following:.
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Each play constitutes a down. The offence must advance the ball at least ten yards towards the opponents' goal line within three downs or forfeit the ball to their opponents. Once ten yards have been gained the offence gains a new set of three downs rather than the four downs given in American football. Downs do not accumulate. If the offensive team completes 10 yards 9.
If a team fails to gain ten yards in two downs they usually punt the ball on third down or try to kick a field goal see below , depending on their position on the field. There are many rules to contact in this type of football. First, the only player on the field who may be legally tackled is the player currently in possession of the football the ball carrier.
Second, a receiver, that is to say, an offensive player sent down the field to receive a pass, may not be interfered with have his motion impeded, be blocked, etc. Any player may block another player's passage, so long as he does not hold or trip the player he intends to block. The kicker may not be contacted after the kick but before his kicking leg returns to the ground this rule is not enforced upon a player who has blocked a kick , and the quarterback, having already thrown the ball, may not be hit or tackled.
Depending on the penalty, the penalty yardage may be assessed from the original line of scrimmage, the spot the violation occurred, or the place the ball ended after the play. Penalties on the offence may, or may not, result in a loss of down; penalties on the defence may result in a first down being automatically awarded to the offence. For particularly severe conduct, the game official s may eject players ejected players may be substituted for , or in exceptional cases, declare the game over and award victory to one side or the other.
Penalties do not affect the yard line which the offence must reach in order to reach first down unless the penalty results in a first down being awarded ; if a penalty against the defence results in the first down yardage being attained, then the offence is awarded a first down. Penalties may occur before a play starts such as offsides , during the play such as holding , or in a dead-ball situation such as unsportsmanlike conduct.
Penalties never result in a score for the offence a penalty by the defence committed in their end zone is not ruled a touchdown ; on rare occasions, penalties against the offence in their own end zone may result in a safety being scored by the defence. If the penalty yardage, once assessed would move the ball into an end zone or further than half the distance between the end zone and the spot the penalty is assessed from , a penalty of half-the-distance is assessed instead.
Note that in Canadian football unlike American football , no scrimmage may start inside either one-yard line. In most cases, the non-penalized team will have the option of declining the penalty; in which case the results of the previous play stand as if the penalty had not been called. One notable exception to this rule is if the kicking team on a 3rd down punt play is penalized before the kick occurs; the receiving team may not decline the penalty and take over on downs. After the kick is made, change of possession occurs and subsequent penalties are assessed against either the spot where the ball is caught, or the runback.
On punts and field goal attempts but not kickoffs , members of the kicking team, other than the kicker and any teammates who are onside behind the kicker at the time of the kick , may not approach within five yards of the ball until it has been touched by the receiving team. Resumption of play following a score is conducted under procedures which vary with the type of score. The game consists of two minute halves, each of which is divided into two minute quarters. The clock counts down from in each quarter.iripyjilitah.tk
Timing rules change when there are three minutes remaining in a half. A 2-minute interval occurs after the end of each quarter 15 minutes at halftime, except 30 minutes in Grey Cup , and the two teams then change goals. The clock starts again when the referee determines the ball is ready for scrimmage, except for team time-outs where the clock starts at the snap , after a time count foul at the snap and kickoffs where the clock starts not at the kick but when the ball is first touched after the kick.
In the last three minutes of a half, the clock stops whenever the ball becomes dead. On kickoffs, the clock starts when the ball is first touched after the kick.
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On scrimmages, when it starts depends on what ended the previous play. The clock starts when the ball is ready for scrimmage except that it starts on the snap when on the previous play. The clock does not run during convert attempts in the last three minutes of a half. If the 15 minutes of a quarter expire while the ball is live, the quarter is extended until the ball becomes dead.
If a quarter's time expires while the ball is dead, the quarter is extended for one more scrimmage. A quarter cannot end while a penalty is pending: after the penalty yardage is applied, the quarter is extended one scrimmage. Note that the non-penalized team has the option to decline any penalty it considers disadvantageous, so a losing team cannot indefinitely prolong a game by repeatedly committing penalties.
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