Balangiga massacre - Wikipedia
The record run under sail on the outward journey was miles in a single day with an average speed of just over nine knots. The lookout man would climb in through a hole in the base. Holes in the side allowed observation without being exposed to the elements.
Discovery is a ship with no portholes. Under the extreme pressure of ice they would have weakened the sides of the vessel. Instead, brass mushroom vents were let into the deck to provide light and ventilation below decks.
The rudder and two-bladed propeller could be lifted up into the main hull to avoid ice damage and allow repairs to be made more easily. The ship had a massively built wooden hull designed to withstand being frozen into the ice. Iron-shod bows were severely raked so that when ramming the ice they would ride up over the margin and crush the ice with deadweight. In fact Clarke was the third choice of cook, the previous two having been sacked one was even clapped in irons for a time.
All the food taken on board Discovery was tinned, dried, bottled, or pickled. The men often moaned that it was tasteless and boring, despite there being mustard by the boxful to spice things up. Christmas-like celebrations were held in June, half-way through the long dark Antarctic winter.
Decorations were put up, small gifts distributed to every man and bottles of beer broken out.
As the menu shows, traditional fare was served, as well as some rather more exotic, Antarctic cuisine. Devilled Skua anybody? With the lack of vitamin C scurvy was a real risk, causing aching joints and lesions on the skin.
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National Library of Australia obj When Australia federated in , parliamentarians felt it necessary to create a national law for immigration. The Immigration Restriction Bill was one of the first Bills introduced to the new parliament and proposed a twofold approach to restricting non-white population growth. The Act came into law on 23 December The Act gave immigration officers the power to make any non-European migrant sit a word dictation test. This was initially given in any European language, and after in any prescribed language.
As the language chosen for the dictation test was at the discretion of the immigration officer, it was easy to ensure failure for migrants deemed undesirable, either because of their country of origin, possible criminal record, medical history, or if considered morally unfit. Extremely small numbers of non-white migrants were ever allowed to pass.
The test was administered times prior to , with only 52 people granted entry to Australia. After not a single migrant made to sit the test passed. Small numbers of migrants were granted certificates of exemption from the test but often exempted people became separated from their friends and family members who did not pass and were deported.itlauto.com/wp-includes/registration/3262-suivre-personne-grace.php
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The introduction of two accompanying acts the Pacific Island Labourers Act and the Post and Telegraph Act further limited access to Australia for non-white migrants by outlawing the use of imported labour and making it mandatory to hire white workers on any vessels transporting Australian mail. The White Australia policy had an immediate impact, rapidly changing demographics. By , only 2. The effect was most obvious on the Asian population.
White Australia policy
Though only 1. This was the first of a number of steps that gradually eroded the policy until its basic dismantling by the Holt government in The Whitlam government completely eliminated it in the s with the introduction of policies like the Racial Discrimination Act Journalist and author George Megalogenis discusses his top three Defining Moments. He was later posted with his regiment in New Zealand.
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For his conduct during the assault on the Rebel Pah, near Tauranga, New Zealand, on the 29th of April last, in most nobly risking his own life, according to the testimony of Commodore Sir William Wiseman, Bart. Having volunteered to accompany the storming party into the Pah, he attended on that Officer when he was carried away, mortally wounded, and then volunteered to return, in order to see if he could find any more wounded.
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It is stated that he was one of the last Officers to leave the Pah. He also served in the same war under Sir Trevor Chute , and was present at the assault and capture of the Okotukou , Putahi , Otapawe, and Waikohou Pahs. For his services on these occasions he was again mentioned in dispatches and promoted to staff surgeon. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in he proceeded with the British Ambulance Corps , and was attached to the 22nd division of the Prussian Army.
He was present for several battles, and received several decorations including the Iron Cross second class on the recommendation of the German Crown Prince:. For services with the British Ambulance Corps caring for the wounded of the 22nd Division in the actions of Chateau-neuf and Bretoncelle, on 18th and 21st December , and the battles of Orleans and Cravant, on 10th December After this war he was promoted to Deputy Surgeon-General.
Manley was awarded the honorary rank of surgeon general and retired from the army in with a distinguished service pension. He died in Cheltenham , Gloucestershire , on 16 November Manley married Miss M.
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